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These markers usually (but not always) follow the surname back through the generations many hundreds of years ago to the time in history when surnames were first adopted, and then follow the genetic profile back through the Middle Ages and beyond.
A second test is recommended to verify each line and avoid the possibility of a diversion in the normal expected surname paternal chain due to an unrecorded adoption, name change, friendly neighbor, or research mistake.
Moreover, he can establish his own unique profile, representing his family line for future matches in the British Isles, America, and elsewhere.
Y-DNA testing measures specific characteristics on the male tester's Y-chromosome -- genealogical markers passed down on the direct paternal line from a father to his son, to his son, to his son, etc., with relatively few changes or mutations over the centuries.
Privacy of test results and samples is protected by the strict protocols and guidelines followed by the testing company, as required by federal and state law. The son of John Harwood of London, he and Elizabeth and his three brothers Thomas, Robert and John, immigrated to Boston probably before 1650.
No blood is involved, and no medical or other information is recorded or obtained.
We use the leading testing company with the largest databank.
The Y-DNA test for Harwood-surname males, swabbing the inside of the cheek, is easy and takes only a few minutes -- 2 swabs at 60 seconds each.
The testkit comes in the mail to the tester's home.
Female Harwood descendants and male Harwood descendants not having the Harwood-variation surname can actively participate by encouraging their Harwood-surname brothers, cousins or other relatives to submit a test.
No one with our Harwood study has any interest in the testing company or any related entity, or receives any type of compensation in connection with our testing program.